Liang Zhao, Jianhao Chen, Yizhen Pang, Kaili Fu, Qihang Shang, Hua Wu, Long Sun, Qin Lin, Haojun Chen

Abstract: In recent years, quinoline-based fibroblast activation protein (FAP) inhibitors (FAPI) have shown promising results in the diagnosis of cancer and several other diseases, making them the hotspot of much productive research. This review summarizes the literature for the state-of-the-art FAPI-PET imaging for cancer diagnosis compared with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. We also summarize the use of FAPI-PET for therapeutic regimen improvement and fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-targeted molecule modification strategies, as well as preliminary clinical studies regarding FAP-targeted radionuclide therapy. Our qualitative summary of the literature to date can inform future research directions, medical guidelines, and optimal clinical decision-making.